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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

Index

back to Islam, Indonesia

Islam, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Islam Indonesia 172,840,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Islam Indonesia 166,000,000 88.00% - - 1996 Halverson, Dean C. (ed.) The Compact Guide to World Religions; Colorado Springs, Colorado: International Students Inc. (1996). [Publisher is an Evangelical missionary organization.]; pg. 103. "...the four nations with the largest number of Muslims today are all outside the Middle East: Indonesia--166 million, 88% of the population; Pakistan--111 million, 97%, Bangladesh--97 million; India--93 million, 11%. "
Islam Indonesia - 85.00% - - 1997 *LINK* "Diaspora " in Hinduism Today International (March 1997) In this world's fifth most populous nation, 85% profess Islam, but acutally the majority follow a unique, syncretic faith of Hinduized indigenous spiritual beliefs overlaid with Islam.
Islam Indonesia 170,310,000 - - - 1997 Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything, DK Publishing, Inc.: New York (1997); pg. 160-161. List: "Top 10 Largest Muslim Populations in the World "; (Rank: 1)
Islam Indonesia 182,503,504 87.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1985); Total Population: 209,774,138 (1997 est.).
Islam Indonesia 156,213,376 - - - 1998 Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything 1999. New York: DK Publishing (1998); pg. 77. Table: "Top 10 Largest Muslim Populations in the World "; Rank: #2
Islam Indonesia 169,650,000 87.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 297. "Location: Indonesia; Population: 195 million; Religion: Islam (87%); Protestantism (6%); Catholicism (3%); Hinduism (3%); Buddhism (1%) "
Islam Indonesia - 82.00% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "
Islam Indonesia - 87.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Wholesome Words: Worldwide Missions " by Stephen Ross, "First Edition, 1998 "; [original sources: The World Book Encyclopedia, c1998.] Table: "Major Muslim Countries of the World "
Islam Indonesia 104,503,000 44.00% - - 2000 K. F. Bin Mohd Noor. "Muslims Statistics... for Year 2000 " [orig. src: Barrett. World Christian Encyclopedia, 1982] Table; Indonesia's statistic of 44% has a footnote: "Quranic Muslims only "
Islam Indonesia - Ambonese 392,000 49.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 31, 33. "Ambonese: Location: Indonesia; Population: 800,000; Religion: Christianity; Islam "; "The Ambonese divide almost evenly into Christians (51%) and Muslims (49%)... Indigenous beliefs focusing on ancestral spirits remain strong, though they coexist more harmoniously with Islam than with Protestantism... "
Islam Indonesia - Angkola and Mandailing - - - - 1990 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 101-102. "The Toba [est. 1990 pop. of 1.65 million] have been predominantly Protestant Christian for over a century, while the Angkola and Mandailing [est. 1990 pop. of 650,000] have been Muslim for several decades longer. "
Islam Indonesia - Karo 60,000 12.00% - - 1990 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 101-102. "Assuming the percentages given in the 1930 colonial census are still accurate, one can break the total down as follows: 1.65 million Toba, living around Lake Toba, on Samosir Island, & in the highlands to the south; 500,000 Karo to the northwest of the lake "; "Some 12% of Karo profess Islam... "
Islam Indonesia: Java - 88.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 342. "As much as 12% of the population of the island of Java (including Chinese and other migrants from other islands) adhere to religions other than Islam. "
Islam Indonesia: Kalimantan Tengah - 66.08% - - 1980 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 581. "According to the 1980 census, 17.71% of the population of Kalimantan Tengah... adhered to traditional animism, predominating in the more upriver vilalges. Some 14.27% of the provincial population was Protestant and 1.94% was Catholic... The rest of the provincial population is Muslim. "
Islam Indonesia: Lombok - Sasak - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 672. "Most Sasak adhere to Islam, introduced from Java... There is a cleavage between syncretists who combine Islamic and pre-Islamic beliefs and practices, and purists wh conform more strictly to Islamic orthodoxy. The former are referred to as Wetu Telu ('Three Time') Muslims, and the latter as Wetu Lima ('Five Time') Muslims. "
Islam Indonesia: Lombok: Bentek - 25.00% - - 1968 *LINK* Cederroth, Sven. "From Ancestor Worship to Monotheism: Politics of Religion in Lombok " in Temenos 32 (1996), 7-36. (Viewed online, Temenos web site, 30 Jan. 1999). "In the village of Bentek... May 1968... Over the next three months Amaq A, the... village head registered the choice of religion of every grown-up male of the village. The women were not asked to register their choice. Around three quarters of the men, some 500 in all, declared that they wanted to register as Buddhists (orang Budha), while the remaining 25% chose Islam... the choice of Buddhism was not primarily motivated by religious conviction but was rather a vote in favour of a certain lifestyle, the traditional adat of old. The lifestyle of the Bentek wetu telu was much closer to that of the neighbouring Boda than to the immigrant waktu lima orthodox Muslims. Thus, the reason to choose Buddhism was not the religion itself but rather that it was identified with the lifestyle of the surrounding Boda, a lifestyle to which the wetu telu felt akin... "
Islam Indonesia: Nias 35,714 7.14% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 584-585. "Niasans: Location: Indonesia (island of Nias); Population: 500,000 "; Pg. 585: "Six out of seven Niasans are Protestant; the remainder are about evenly divided between Muslim (mostly immigrants from elsewhere in Indonesia) and Catholic. "
Islam Iowa - - 1
unit
- 1934 Gallagher, Winifred. Working on God. New York: Random House (1999); pg. 148. "Since building the first one in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, in 1934, American Muslims have erected more than fifteen hundred mosques and Islamic centers. "
Islam Iowa - 0.00% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Islam Iowa - 0.00% - - 2001 *LINK* Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; & Ariela Keysar. "American Religious Identity Survey. " 2001. City University of New York. ARIS: Nationwide phone survey of 50,000 American adults; open-ended question: 'What is your religion, if any?'; Listed in table: "Muslim/Islamic "; Actual % between 0 and 0.5%, so sell was left blank.
Islam Iran - - - - 1950 Zehavi, A.M. (editor) Handbook of the World's Religions. New York: Franklin Watts (1973); pg. 135. "Islam... In most areas there are no exact censuses, but approximate figures for the mid-20th century are as follows, by major groups:... in Iran and Afghanistan, 27,000,000; in Pakistan, 66,000,000; in India, 40,000,000... "
Islam Iran 34,100,000 98.00% - - 1978 Welch, Alford T. "Islam " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991 reprint; 1st pub 1984). [Orig. source: Weeks, R. (ed.), "Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey " (1978)]; pg. 164-165. Table: "Approximate Muslim populations and percentages of total populations "
Islam Iran - 98.00% - - 1979 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: OPERATION WORLD, 1979 edition); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Muslims 98% -materialism and westernisation is weakening the hold of Islam on young people (Also changed in recent years.)
Islam Iran 41,657,840 98.00% - - 1983 Tarr, David R. & Bryan R. Daves (editors). The Middle East (6th Ed.); Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc. (1986); pg. 188. "Population: 42,508,000. Religion: 98% Moslem, with a great majority members of the Shi'ite sect; 5% of Sunni sect... "
Islam Iran 47,217,380 98.00% - - 1986 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies 48,181,463 [total pop.] (1986). Shia Islam official religion with at least 90 percent adherence. Also approximately 8 percent Sunni Muslims and smaller numbers of Bahais, Armenian and Assyrian Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians.
Islam Iran 48,000,000 98.00% - - 1986 *LINK* Web site: "Arabic Paper "; web page: "Muslim Countries of the World " (viewed 15 June 1999). [Written 1998.] [NOTE: Questionable statistical methodology.] "In 1986... Muslim Education Trust organization [U.K.] obtained... 1971 census & [info. from] Embassies of the respective countires... 1971 census showed the Independent Muslim countries pop. was around 784.5 Million. "; "...add (784.5M + 308M [minority Muslim countries]) = 1092.5 Million Muslims in 1971 "; Table shows country, "population " [number of Muslims in the country], & % Muslim. Total adds up to 896,080,000, so these figures are apparently intended to be estimates for 1986.
Islam Iran - 99.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994); pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Islam Iran - 99.00% - - 1994 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: November, 1994 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Total Population: 56,585,000. MUSLIM: 99%: Shi'ite branch, 87%; Sunni branch 12%. BAHA'I: 0.5%. 300,000. JEWS: 0.1%. ZOROASTRIAN: O.04%. CHRISTIAN: 0.4%
Islam Iran 60,790,000 - - - 1997 Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything, DK Publishing, Inc.: New York (1997); pg. 160-161. List: "Top 10 Largest Muslim Populations in the World "; (Rank: 6)
Islam Iran 66,864,600 99.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Shi'a Muslim 89%, Sunni Muslim 10%, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i 1%; Total population: 67,540,002 (July 1997 est.) note: includes 917,078 non-nationals (July 1997 est.).
Islam Iran 62,720,000 98.00% - - 1997 Russell, Malcom B. The Middle East and South Asia 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 92. Estimates of % of population in principal religions, & est. 1997 total pop.
Islam Iran 74,087,696 - - - 1998 Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything 1999. New York: DK Publishing (1998); pg. 77. Table: "Top 10 Largest Muslim Populations in the World "; Rank: #5
Islam Iran - 89.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Wholesome Words: Worldwide Missions " by Stephen Ross, "First Edition, 1998 "; [original sources: The World Book Encyclopedia, c1998.] Table: "Major Muslim Countries of the World "
Islam Iran - 98.00% - - 1999 Lyle, Garry. Iran (series: Major World Nations), Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1999); pg. 86. "Despite its diversity of peoples and cultures, Iran has almost no religious diversity--98% of its people are Muslims. And nearly all of them are Shiite Muslims... "
Islam Iran 65,370,000 98.20% - - 2000 K. F. Bin Mohd Noor. "Muslims Statistics... for Year 2000 " [orig. src: Barrett. World Christian Encyclopedia, 1982] Table
Islam Iran: Kurdistan - 98.00% - - 1993 Chaliand, Gerard (ed). A People Without a Country: The Kurds and Kurdistan. New York: Olive Branch Press (1993 - revised first American edition); pg. 97. "The population of Iranian Kurdistan is 98% Muslim. The remaining 2% is made up of Armenian and Assyrian Christians and some Jews. Most of the Muslims are Sunnis (75%); the Shiites are mainly concentrated in Kermanshah and Luristan. "
Islam Iraq 11,100,000 95.00% - - 1978 Welch, Alford T. "Islam " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991 reprint; 1st pub 1984). [Orig. source: Weeks, R. (ed.), "Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey " (1978)]; pg. 164-165. Table: "Approximate Muslim populations and percentages of total populations "
Islam Iraq - 96.00% - - 1982 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: WORLD CHRISTIAN ENCYCLOPEDIA, edited by David B. Barrett, and published by Oxford Press, Oxford, New York, 1982); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Islam was established in Iraq in the 7th century. Shias form a majority of the population (62% of the 96% who are Muslims), but the influence exercised by Sunnis of both the Hanafite and Shafiite rites is preponderant.
Islam Iraq 14,073,600 96.00% - - 1983 Tarr, David R. & Bryan R. Daves (editors). The Middle East (6th Ed.); Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc. (1986); pg. 196. "Population: 14,660,000. Religion: 96% Moslem, 4% other. "
Islam Iraq 14,500,000 95.00% - - 1986 *LINK* Web site: "Arabic Paper "; web page: "Muslim Countries of the World " (viewed 15 June 1999). [Written 1998.] [NOTE: Questionable statistical methodology.] "In 1986... Muslim Education Trust organization [U.K.] obtained... 1971 census & [info. from] Embassies of the respective countires... 1971 census showed the Independent Muslim countries pop. was around 784.5 Million. "; "...add (784.5M + 308M [minority Muslim countries]) = 1092.5 Million Muslims in 1971 "; Table shows country, "population " [number of Muslims in the country], & % Muslim. Total adds up to 896,080,000, so these figures are apparently intended to be estimates for 1986.
Islam Iraq 15,464,100 95.00% - - 1987 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies 16,278,000 [total pop.] (1987). 95+% Muslim. Govrnmt. gives number of Shias as 55% but prob. 60 to 65% is reasonable. Most Iraqi Shias are Arabs. Almost all Kurds, approx. 19% of pop., are Sunnis, together with about 13% Sunni Arabs. Total Arab pop.= 76%.
Islam Iraq 16,866,300 95.00% - - 1991 Foster, Leila Merrell. Iraq (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Childrens Press (1992); pg. 115. "Religion: Muslims make up about 95% of the population. While more than 50% of Muslims are Shiites, the leaders of the party in power since 1968 are mostly Sunnis. There is a very small Jewish population... Population: Approximately 17,754,000 (mid-1991 estimate)... "
Islam Iraq - 96.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994); pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Islam Iraq 21,552,710 97.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%; Total population: 22,219,289.
Islam Iraq 18,463,250 95.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 312, 314. "Location: Iraq; Population: 19,435,000 "; Pg. 314: "The majority of Iraqis, about 95%, are Muslim. Of these, 54% are Shi'ite and 41% are Sunni. "
Islam Iraq - 97.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Wholesome Words: Worldwide Missions " by Stephen Ross, "First Edition, 1998 "; [original sources: The World Book Encyclopedia, c1998.] Table: "Major Muslim Countries of the World "
Islam Iraq 23,444,900 95.90% - - 2000 K. F. Bin Mohd Noor. "Muslims Statistics... for Year 2000 " [orig. src: Barrett. World Christian Encyclopedia, 1982] Table
Islam Israel 400,000 8.00% - - 1978 Welch, Alford T. "Islam " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991 reprint; 1st pub 1984). [Orig. source: Weeks, R. (ed.), "Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey " (1978)]; pg. 164-165. Table: "Approximate Muslim populations and percentages of total populations "
Islam Israel 514,800 11.70% - - 1988 Bratvold, Gretchen (ed). Israel ...in Pictures (Visual Geography Series). Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications Co. (1988); pg. 38, 40, 48. "Israel's 4.4 million people... "; Pg. 40: "The Arab population within the 1948 boundaries of Israel constitutes about 15% of the total population. "; Pg. 48: "Of the Arab population, 78% are Muslim, 14% are Christian, and 8% are Druze... "
Islam Israel 546,000 13.00% - - 1988 Cahill, Mary Jane. Israel (series: Places and Peoples of the World). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1988); pg. 9. "Population: 4,200,000... Religions: Jewish, 83%; Muslim (mainly Sunni), 13%; Christian (mainly Greek and Roman Catholic), 2.5%; Druze and other minority religions, 1.5% "
Islam Israel - 14.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994); pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Islam Israel 770,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table; includes the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem; excludes the West Bank and Gaza Strip
Islam Israel 774,854 14.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Judaism 82%, Islam 14% (mostly Sunni Muslim), Christian 2%, Druze and other 2%; 1996/97 Total pop: 5,534,672. NOTE: incl. 136,000 Israeli settlers in West Bank, 15,000 in Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 5,000 in Gaza Strip, & 156,000 in East Jerusalem.
Islam Israel 690,000 13.80% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 318, 320. "Location: Israel; Population: 5 million "; Pg. 320: "Of the 18% who are non-Jews, 77% (or 13.8% of the Israeli population) are Muslim Arabs, most of them Sunni Muslims. "
Islam Israel - 14.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; total population: 5,438,000
Islam Israel 730,470 13.00% - - 1999 Cahill, Mary Jane. Israel (series: Major World Nations). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1999); pg. 9. "Population: 5,619,000... Religions: Jewish, 83%; Muslim (mainly Sunni), 13%; Christian (mainly Greek and Roman Catholic), 2.5%; Druze and other minority religions, 1.5% "
Islam Israel 735,527 13.09% - - 1999 Cahill, Mary Jane. Israel (series: Major World Nations). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1999); pg. 55-56. "Almost all of Israel's non-Jews (about 17% of the population) are Arabs. About 77% of the non-Jews are Muslims; about 14% are Christians; and 9% are Druzes... or members of other religions. "
Islam Israel 357,000 6.50% - - 2000 K. F. Bin Mohd Noor. "Muslims Statistics... for Year 2000 " [orig. src: Barrett. World Christian Encyclopedia, 1982] Table
Islam Israel - Arabs - 70.00% - - 1972 Hoffman, Gail. The Land and People of Israel (series: Portaits of the Nations Series). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1972, revised edition); pg. 63. "At present, 70% of the Israeli Arabs are Moslems, 20% Christian, and 10% Druze. "
Islam Israel - Arabs 514,800 78.00% - - 1988 Bratvold, Gretchen (ed). Israel ...in Pictures (Visual Geography Series). Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications Co. (1988); pg. 48. "Of the Arab population, 78% are Muslim, 14% are Christian, and 8% are Druze... "
Islam Israel - Arabs 1,748,000 92.00% - - 1994 Lindsey, Hal. Planet Earth - 2000 A.D.. Palos Verdes, California: Western Front, Ltd. (1994); pg. 178. "About 1.9 million Arabs live within the bordres of Israel. About 92% of them are Sunni Muslims, while the other 8% are Christian. But that minority is shrinking all the time--victims of harassment and persecution by the Muslim majority. "
Islam Israel: Bethlehem - 50.00% - - 1986 Jones, Helen Hinckley. Israel (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Childrens Press (1986); pg. 64. "Bethlehem... The town is half Christian and half Muslim now... "
Islam Israel: Nazareth - 70.00% - - 1999 *LINK* Fletcher, Elaine (RNS). "Tensions Threaten Nazareth's Millennium Festivities " in Salt Lake Tribune, 16 Oct. 1999 (v. online). "'Muslims today are 70 percent of the city's residents, and we want to be able to give our population the basic services, schools, hospitals... and mosques that they deserve,' said Muslim leader Ahmed Zuabi, sitting in a corner of the tent as the prayers got under way. 'Look at what the Christians in this city can claim,' added Zuabi, a city council member, gesturing toward the basilica. 'They have dozens of institutions and some 750 acres of land. We, in comparison, have almost nothing.' "
Islam Italy 550,000 1.00% - - 1986 *LINK* Web site: "Arabic Paper "; web page: "Muslim Countries of the World " (viewed 15 June 1999). [Written 1998.] [NOTE: Questionable statistical methodology.] "In 1986... Muslim Education Trust organization [U.K.] obtained... 1971 census & [info. from] Embassies of the respective countires... 1971 census showed the Muslim Minorities countries had around 308 Million Muslim.. "; "...add (784.5M [independent Muslim countries]+ 308M) = 1092.5 Million Muslims in 1971 "; Table shows country, "population " [number of Muslims in the country], & % Muslim. Total adds up to 317,391,000, so these figures are apparently intended to be estimates for 1986.


Islam, continued

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