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Episcopalian, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Episcopalian Pennsylvania - 1.70% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Episcopalian Pennsylvania - 1.00% - - 2001 *LINK* Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; & Ariela Keysar. "American Religious Identity Survey. " 2001. City University of New York. ARIS: Nationwide phone survey of 50,000 American adults; open-ended question: 'What is your religion, if any?'; Listed in table: "Episcopalian/Anglican "; [These figures listed in database under both 'Anglican' and 'Episcopalian']
Episcopalian Pennsylvania: Philadelphia 22,400 1.40% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 110. Table 3-5: "Religious Profiles of Selected Cities by Percentage ". Based on self-identification, phone interviews, conducted by Graduate School of the City University of New York, 1990. Total Philadelphia pop: 1.6 million.
Episcopalian Puerto Rico - - - - 1987 Rodgers, Mary M. (ed). Puerto Rico ...in Pictures (Visual Geography Series). Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications Co. (1987); pg. 34. "...the Episcopalians are mainly in the large cities and suburbs. "
Episcopalian Rhode Island - 5.10% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Episcopalian Rhode Island - 8.00% - - 2001 *LINK* Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; & Ariela Keysar. "American Religious Identity Survey. " 2001. City University of New York. ARIS: Nationwide phone survey of 50,000 American adults; open-ended question: 'What is your religion, if any?'; Listed in table: "Episcopalian/Anglican "; [These figures listed in database under both 'Anglican' and 'Episcopalian']
Episcopalian South Carolina - 2.00% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Episcopalian South Carolina - 2.00% - - 2001 *LINK* Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; & Ariela Keysar. "American Religious Identity Survey. " 2001. City University of New York. ARIS: Nationwide phone survey of 50,000 American adults; open-ended question: 'What is your religion, if any?'; Listed in table: "Episcopalian/Anglican "; [These figures listed in database under both 'Anglican' and 'Episcopalian']
Episcopalian South Dakota - 1.40% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Episcopalian South Dakota - 1.00% - - 2001 *LINK* Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; & Ariela Keysar. "American Religious Identity Survey. " 2001. City University of New York. ARIS: Nationwide phone survey of 50,000 American adults; open-ended question: 'What is your religion, if any?'; Listed in table: "Episcopalian/Anglican "; [These figures listed in database under both 'Anglican' and 'Episcopalian']
Episcopalian Tennessee - 1.10% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Episcopalian Tennessee - 1.00% - - 2001 *LINK* Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; & Ariela Keysar. "American Religious Identity Survey. " 2001. City University of New York. ARIS: Nationwide phone survey of 50,000 American adults; open-ended question: 'What is your religion, if any?'; Listed in table: "Episcopalian/Anglican "; [These figures listed in database under both 'Anglican' and 'Episcopalian']
Episcopalian Texas - 1.90% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Episcopalian Texas - 1.00% - - 2001 *LINK* Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; & Ariela Keysar. "American Religious Identity Survey. " 2001. City University of New York. ARIS: Nationwide phone survey of 50,000 American adults; open-ended question: 'What is your religion, if any?'; Listed in table: "Episcopalian/Anglican "; [These figures listed in database under both 'Anglican' and 'Episcopalian']
Episcopalian Texas: Dallas-Fort Worth 58,500 1.50% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 112. Table 3-6: "Religious Profiles of Selected Metropolitan Areas ". Based on self-identification, phone interviews, conducted by Graduate School of the City University of New York, 1990. Total area pop: 3.9 million.
Episcopalian Texas: Houston 99,900 2.70% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 112. Table 3-6: "Religious Profiles of Selected Metropolitan Areas ". Based on self-identification, phone interviews, conducted by Graduate School of the City University of New York, 1990. Total area pop: 3.7 million.
Episcopalian USA 1,260,000 - - - 1830 Feldman, Egal. Dual Destinies: The Jewish Encounter with Protestant America; Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press (1990); pg. 49. "Although numerical precision is elusive, the American Education Society estimated in 1830 that of the nation's leading denominations, there were 2,743,453 Calvinist Baptists, 2,600,000 Methodists, 1,800,000 Presbyterians, 1,260,000 Congregationalists, & 1,260,000 Episcopalians. "
Episcopalian USA 90,000 - - - 1850 Herberg, Will. Protestant-Catholic-Jew: An Essay in American Religious Sociology; Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company (1960); pg. 105. "By 1850... the Disciples of Christ, after only twenty years as a separte body, had a membership of 118,000; and the Episcopalians came last with 90,000. "
Episcopalian USA 3,234,000 - - - 1970 Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything, DK Publishing, Inc.: New York (1997); pg. 160-161. List: "Fastest Growing Religious Affiliations in the US " (Based on increase/decrease in membership between 1970 and 1995).; NOTE: Episcopalianism experienced 27.3% DECLINE.
Episcopalian USA 3,000,000 - - - 1975 Wallechinsky, David & Irving Wallace; The People's Almanac; Garden City, NY: Doubleday (1975); pg. 1266. List of "Major World Religions ": "Anglicanism has some 65 million members throughout the world; in the U.S. it has over 3 million. "; "American adherents call their church the Episcopal or Protestant Episcopal Church. "
Episcopalian USA - 1.40% - - 1977 Wallechinsky, David & Irving Wallace; The People's Almanac: #2; New York: William Morrow & Co.: (1978); pg. 309. United States of America: "Religions: Roman Catholic, 24.1%; Baptist, 13.1%; Methodist, 6.3%; Lutheran, 4.3%; Eastern Orthodox, 2.1%; Presbyterian, 1.9%; Jewish, 1.9%; Episcopal, 1.4%; Latter-day Saints, 1.3%; other or no religion, 43.6% "
Episcopalian USA 3,042,000 1.70% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 15-17. Table 1-2: Self-Described Adherence of U.S. Adult Population 1990. Phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by Graduate School of City U. of New York.
Episcopalian USA - 1.70% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Episcopalian USA - 2.00% - - 1992 *LINK* web site: Princeton Religion Research Center: "Gallup Religion Data " (Dec 1998) Table: "What specific denomination is that? (asked of Protestants) "; [this figure is percentage of U.S. total population]
Episcopalian USA - 2.00% - - 1993 *LINK* web site: Princeton Religion Research Center: "Gallup Religion Data " (Dec 1998) Table: "What specific denomination is that? (asked of Protestants) "; [this figure is percentage of U.S. total population]
Episcopalian USA - 1.90% - - 1994 Neusner, Jacob (ed). World Religions in America: An Introduction; Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press (1994); pg. 41. "...fewer than two out of a hundred Americans today call themselves Episcopalian, and even in Virginia only three out of a hundred citizens do (as opposed to thirty-one who call themselves Baptists!) "
Episcopalian USA - 2.00% - - 1994 *LINK* web site: Princeton Religion Research Center: "Gallup Religion Data " (Dec 1998) Table: "What specific denomination is that? (asked of Protestants) "; [this figure is percentage of U.S. total population]
Episcopalian USA 2,350,000 - - - 1995 Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything, DK Publishing, Inc.: New York (1997); pg. 160-161. List: "Fastest Growing Religious Affiliations in the US " (Based on increase/decrease in membership between 1970 and 1995).; NOTE: Episcopalianism experienced 27.3% DECLINE.
Episcopalian USA - 2.00% - - 1995 *LINK* web site: Princeton Religion Research Center: "Gallup Religion Data " (Dec 1998) Table: "What specific denomination is that? (asked of Protestants) "; [this figure is percentage of U.S. total population]
Episcopalian USA - 2.00% - - 1996 Gallagher, Winifred. Working on God. New York: Random House (1999). [Orig. source: George H. Gallup, Jr. Religion in America (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Religion Research Center, 1996).]; pg. 168. "According to the Princeton Religion Research Center, about 2% of the population--approximately the same percentage as that of Episcopalians or Jews--believe in a cosmic force rather than a personal God. "
Episcopalian USA - 2.00% - - 1996 *LINK* web site: Princeton Religion Research Center: "Gallup Religion Data " (Dec 1998) Table: "What specific denomination is that? (asked of Protestants) "; [this figure is percentage of U.S. total population]
Episcopalian USA 2,350,000 - - - 1997 Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything, DK Publishing, Inc.: New York (1997); pg. 160-161. List: "Top 10 Religious Affiliations in the US "; (Rank: 7)
Episcopalian Utah - - 1
unit
- 1867 *LINK* Mims, Bob. "135 Years In Utah: First Congregational was first permanent non-LDS church " in Salt Lake Tribune (15 Jan 2000). "Episcopalians marked their Utah beginnings at Independence Hall, beginning meetings there in May 1867, records show. The church formally organized a Salt Lake City parish in November 1870... "
Episcopalian Utah - 0.50% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Episcopalian Utah 5,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Mims, Bob. "Bishop Irish Off For Treatment Of Alcoholism " in Salt Lake Tribune, 23 Oct. 1999 (v. online). "Bishop Carolyn Tanner Irish of the Episcopal Diocese has taken an indefinite leave of absence to seek treatment for alcoholism at an out-of-state facility. The Rev. Jeffrey Sells, diocesan spokesman, confirmed that Irish, a native Utahn who... rose from deacon to priest and finally bishop here in May 1996, decided earlier this week to take medical leave... As spiritual leader of Utah's estimated 5,000 Episcopalians... "
Episcopalian Utah - 3.00% - - 2001 *LINK* Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; & Ariela Keysar. "American Religious Identity Survey. " 2001. City University of New York. ARIS: Nationwide phone survey of 50,000 American adults; open-ended question: 'What is your religion, if any?'; Listed in table: "Episcopalian/Anglican "; [These figures listed in database under both 'Anglican' and 'Episcopalian']
Episcopalian Vermont - 3.50% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Episcopalian Vermont - 4.00% - - 2001 *LINK* Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; & Ariela Keysar. "American Religious Identity Survey. " 2001. City University of New York. ARIS: Nationwide phone survey of 50,000 American adults; open-ended question: 'What is your religion, if any?'; Listed in table: "Episcopalian/Anglican "; [These figures listed in database under both 'Anglican' and 'Episcopalian']
Episcopalian Virginia - 3.20% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Episcopalian Virginia - 3.00% - - 1994 Neusner, Jacob (ed). World Religions in America: An Introduction; Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press (1994); pg. 41. "...fewer than two out of a hundred Americans today call themselves Episcopalian, and even in Virginia only three out of a hundred citizens do (as opposed to thirty-one who call themselves Baptists!) "
Episcopalian Virginia - 3.00% - - 2001 *LINK* Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; & Ariela Keysar. "American Religious Identity Survey. " 2001. City University of New York. ARIS: Nationwide phone survey of 50,000 American adults; open-ended question: 'What is your religion, if any?'; Listed in table: "Episcopalian/Anglican "; [These figures listed in database under both 'Anglican' and 'Episcopalian']
Episcopalian Washington - 1.80% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Episcopalian Washington - 1.00% - - 2001 *LINK* Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; & Ariela Keysar. "American Religious Identity Survey. " 2001. City University of New York. ARIS: Nationwide phone survey of 50,000 American adults; open-ended question: 'What is your religion, if any?'; Listed in table: "Episcopalian/Anglican "; [These figures listed in database under both 'Anglican' and 'Episcopalian']
Episcopalian Washington, D.C. - 4.50% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York. [Geographic region in this table is listed as "District of Columbia ", not "Washington, D.C. "]
Episcopalian Washington, D.C. - 2.00% - - 2001 *LINK* Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; & Ariela Keysar. "American Religious Identity Survey. " 2001. City University of New York. ARIS: Nationwide phone survey of 50,000 American adults; open-ended question: 'What is your religion, if any?'; Listed in table: "Episcopalian/Anglican "; [These figures listed in database under both 'Anglican' and 'Episcopalian']
Episcopalian West Virginia - 0.80% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Episcopalian West Virginia - 1.00% - - 2001 *LINK* Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; & Ariela Keysar. "American Religious Identity Survey. " 2001. City University of New York. ARIS: Nationwide phone survey of 50,000 American adults; open-ended question: 'What is your religion, if any?'; Listed in table: "Episcopalian/Anglican "; [These figures listed in database under both 'Anglican' and 'Episcopalian']
Episcopalian Wisconsin - 0.90% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Episcopalian Wisconsin - 1.00% - - 2001 *LINK* Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; & Ariela Keysar. "American Religious Identity Survey. " 2001. City University of New York. ARIS: Nationwide phone survey of 50,000 American adults; open-ended question: 'What is your religion, if any?'; Listed in table: "Episcopalian/Anglican "; [These figures listed in database under both 'Anglican' and 'Episcopalian']
Episcopalian Wyoming - 5.20% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Episcopalian Wyoming - 4.00% - - 2001 *LINK* Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; & Ariela Keysar. "American Religious Identity Survey. " 2001. City University of New York. ARIS: Nationwide phone survey of 50,000 American adults; open-ended question: 'What is your religion, if any?'; Listed in table: "Episcopalian/Anglican "; [These figures listed in database under both 'Anglican' and 'Episcopalian']
Episcopalian - attendance weekly USA 376,000 - - - 1993 Reeves, Thomas C. The Empty Church: Does Organized Religion Matter Anymore? Simon & Schuster: New York, NY (1998); pg. 63. 1993 study by sociologists Mark Chaves and Kirk Hadaway "Only approximately 16% of self-defined Episcopalians attended worship during a typical week. " [16% times 2,350,000 Episcopalians in U.S.]
Erie North America - Eastern Woodlands 14,500 - - - 1650 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 200. Table: "Eastern Woodlands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Erie world 14,500 - - - 1650 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 200. Table: "Eastern Woodlands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Esselen North America - Pacific Coast 500 - - - 1770 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Esselen world 500 - - - 1770 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Essenes Israel 4,000 - - - 33 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), Chapter: Judaism; pg. 262. "Essenes: An apocalyptic sect devoted to an extremely strict and ascetic way of life, who probably produced such apacalypic works as the books of Enoch, from c. 250 BC. About 4,000 members lived in Palestine during the time of Christ... They were the only celibate group in early Jerusalem, and this practice probably explains their short life as a sect. "
Essenes Israel - - - - 50 C.E. Walker, Williston. A History of the Christian Church (3rd ed., revised by Robert T. Handy; 1st ed. 1918). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1970); pg. 15. "The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls has cast a flood of light on this piety and on the existence of a body of Judaism to be distinguished from the Sadduccees and Pharisees. The library and the monastic ruins of the community of Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, have revealed the location of a Brotherhood, associated in some way with the Essenes of whom Phio, Josephus and Pliny the Elder wrote in the first century of our era... "
Essenes Israel - - - - 70 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 239. "Essenes. The identity of this sect of ancient Palestine remains in doubt; however, prevailing opinion relates the Essenes to descendants of the early Hasidim (pietists) of the Maccabean era. Described extensively by Josephus, Philo, and Pliny the Elder, the Essenes appear to be the same group pictured in the Dead Sea Scrolls. These were producted by a Jewish sect living on the western shore of the Dead Sea in distinct living groups within Judea, who were dissatisfied with the Hasmonean leaderhip and believed it had corrupted and usurped the high priesthood... Essenes withdrew from society... in the middle of the second century B.C... flourished there until A.D. 70 (with a hiatus after the 31 B.C. earthquake)... "
Essenes Israel - - - - 70 C.E. Oxtoby, Willard G. The Meaning of Other Faiths. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press (1983); pg. 25. "A third option in a sense held out for the observance of Jewish tradition in the total life of a community; if this could not be carried out in a city under Greek or Roman rule, then a community would have to be established in isolation elsewhere. Such was the character of the monastic settlement built by the Essene sect near the shores of the Dad Sea. The Essenes were scarcely known until the discovery of their library, the Dead Sea Scrolls, in 1947. "
Essenes world - - - - 20 C.E. *LINK* web site: "Karaite Korner "; web page: "History of Karaism " (viewed 14 March 1999). Copyright 1998-1999 by Nehemia Gordon and Devorah Gordon. "The Second Temple period saw the rise of several more sects among them another group which only followed the written Torah called the Boethusians and a sect which added several books to the Bible called the Essenes (a.k.a. the 'Dead Sea Sect'). "
Essenes world - - - - 150 C.E. Jacobs, Louis. Oxford Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press (1999); pg. 55. "Essenes: A Jewish sect which flourished at the end of the Second Temple period, from the second century BCE. Philo, Josephus, and the Roman authority Pliny all made mention of this sect but while references to the other two sects of this period, the Pharisees and the Sadducees are frequent in the Talmudic literature, there is no mention of the Essenes anywhere in this literature, unless the references to the 'pious men of old', hasidim ha-rishonim, are to the Essenes. (A number of modern scholars, in fact, understand the name Essenes to be a Greek form of the word Hasidim.) The community that produced the Dead Sea Scrolls seems to have been a community of Essenes or one with the same association with the Essenes. Probably because there is no clear reference to them in the Rabbinic literature, the Essenes are not mentioned at all in later Jewish religious literature and they have had no direct influence on the development of the Jewish religion. "
Essenes world - - - - 900 C.E. *LINK* web site: "Karaite Korner "; web page: "History of Karaism " (viewed 14 March 1999). Copyright 1998-1999 by Nehemia Gordon and Devorah Gordon. "How long these three sects [Sadducees, Essenes, Boethusians] continued to co-exist is unknown. It is often thought that the Essenes and Saducees ceased to exist with the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE. However this seems unlikely as writings of the Essenes appear as late as the 10th century which seems to indicate that they survived well after the destruction of the temple. References to the Sadducees and the Boethusians continue to appear in post-70 CE literature and they also seemed to have survived for some time. "
Essenes world - - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "ESSENES: an ancient JEWISH SECT dwelling in the vicinity of the Dead Sea about which little is known... They are generally believed to be associated with the DEAD SEA SCROLLS... Since the nineteenth century various ESOTERIC religious movements have claimed continuity with the Essenes and used their name to propagate their own views. Such groups must be recognized as NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS lacking historical justifications for their claims which are wild speculations. "
est Germany, West 5,200 - - - 1987 Clarke, Peter B. The New Evangelists: Recruitment, Method and Aims of New Religious Movements, London: Ethnographics (1987); pg. 10 to 14. "Another more detailed assessment for West Germany covering many more movements concludes that well over one million people are involved or 'influenced' by new religions, with a 'full-time' membership of 64,200. The estimated full time membership for 12 of these movements is: " [table]


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