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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

Index

back to Chinese traditional religion, China

Chinese traditional religion, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Chinese traditional religion China - - - - 1957 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957); pg. 7. "So tangential are both Confucianism and Taoism to the spiritual life of the Chinese people that, in the old days, a single Chinese often would regard himself in his ethics as a Confucianist, in his cultivation of the occult (something rarely indulged in by the educated) a Taoist, and in his religion (as we use the term) a Buddhist. Yet all the time he probably remained a good deal of a skeptical, earthly materialist. But these are not 'the old days.' Logically, it would seem that the Communists, with their scorn for all religion and their belief in the adequacy of Marxist-approved science to answer all men's questions and needs, would make short shrift of Confucian reverence for the past [etc.]... "
Chinese traditional religion China - - - - 1960 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998); pg. 42. "Guanyin, the goddess of mercy, originated in Mahayana... Buddhism. Among the many gods in popular Chinese religion, there were also earth deities of streams and rivers were considered to be particularly dangerous unpredictable. Apart from Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism, there was also a working-class religion known as Daoist Buddhism. "
Chinese traditional religion China - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 4). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), Chapter author: Marjorie Topley; pg. 457. "Religion in China has always been deeply embedded in the social sytem, and it is not possible to consider the one without the other. It is among the world's richest religions. Intermingled with the strands of Buddhism, Taoism, ancestor worship, folk religion and Confucianism is a deep concern with the fate of society. From this complex background three major interests emerge... The period of recorded religious development in China is extremely long, going back to the Shang dynasty of the 18th to 12 centuries BC, but we are mainly concerned here with modern China. "
Chinese traditional religion China - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 4). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), Chapter author: Marjorie Topley; pg. 457. "Traditional Chinese religion, surprisingly, has something in common with Maoist ideology in that both have a strong social purpose. Long before the Communists took over, the Chinese government 'adopted' the ancient pantheon of gods and turned them into a celestial bureaucracy, with a supernatural emperor at the apex, supported by divine 'officials' of all ranks, down to the gods of the household. "
Chinese traditional religion China - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 4). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), Chapter author: Marjorie Topley; pg. 463. "With religion so intertwined with the social system, it is clear that major social change could not be fully effected without considerable change in beliefs and practices. A new and comprehensive ideology was found in Chinese Communism -- although, curiously, Chinese medicine which is based on Yin-Yang theory is still positively encouraged in China today. In some ways the new system, especially in its present Maoist form resembles the old. There are striking parallels between modern and traditional methods of instilling the social ethic, for example, by self-cultivation by the reading of orthodox books and seeking strength from an inward appreciation of the contents. "
Chinese traditional religion China 372,000,000 - - - 1988 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: 10/29/88 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) "PRAY FOR THE 372,000,000 ADHERENTS OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE RELIGIONS IN CHINA... Some burned the specially made paper money to commemorate their ancestors. "
Chinese traditional religion China 245,000,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop. [Listed in table as "Chinese folk religion "]
Chinese traditional religion China 324,000,000 27.00% - - 1998 "A Tale of China's Two Churches " in Christianity Today (July 13, 1998). [Source: Amity News Service, Operation World]; pg. 33. Chart [Listed in table as "Chinese folk religion "]
Chinese traditional religion China - 28.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check " (Protestant); web page: "The 'Right' India Strategy? " by Justin D. Long, 1998 (viewed 5 March 1999) "Of course, folk religions (28% of China) and Islam are both forces in China, but religions make a far deeper impact on India than in China. "
Chinese traditional religion Eurasia 1,000 - - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "Geography of Religions " (Geography Department of Morehead State University); web page: "Geography of Taoism " (viewed 1 July 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.] Table: "Geography of Taoism ". "The figures of distribution listed below are for all traditional Chinese religionists, including local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoists, divination, as well as some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion Europe 116,000 0.02% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by 6 Continental Areas,1995 "; "Chinese folk religionists: Followers of traditional Chinese religions (local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoism, universism, divination, some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion Europe 120,000 0.02% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by 6 Continental Areas,1996 "; "Chinese folk religionists: Followers of traditional Chinese religions (local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoism, universism, divination, some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion Europe 60,000 - - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "Geography of Religions " (Geography Department of Morehead State University); web page: "Geography of Taoism " (viewed 1 July 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.] Table: "Geography of Taoism ". "The figures of distribution listed below are for all traditional Chinese religionists, including local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoists, divination, as well as some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion Europe 250,000 0.03% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 " [Listed in table as 'Chinese folk religionists': Followers of traditional Chinese religion (local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoism, universism, divination, some Buddhist elements).]
Chinese traditional religion French Guiana - 0.01% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Ethnologue Database " (viewed circa Dec. 1998) "Religion: Christian 88%, secular 5%, traditional religion 4%, Chinese traditional religion 1%, Muslim 1%, Baha'i 1% "
Chinese traditional religion Hong Kong 1,625,000 25.00% - - 1997 *LINK* 1997 Religious Studies News Recent studies on the numbers of religious residents in the population of Hong Kong (now about 6.5 million) indicate that about 25 percent believe or participate in traditonal Chinese religious practices.
Chinese traditional religion Hong Kong - - 400
units
- 1997 *LINK* 1997 Religious Studies News "A significant number of the Hong Kong residents who practice traditional Chinese beliefs are elderly. This population is scattered among nearly 400 temples throughout Hong Kong "
Chinese traditional religion Hong Kong - - 600
units
- 1998 Kagda, Falaq. Hong Kong (series: Cultures of the World). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1998); pg. 67. "Most Hong Kong Chinese practice a mix of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism... In all, there are more than 600 Buddhist and Taoist temple in the territory. "
Chinese traditional religion Hong Kong - 66.00% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; Listed in table as "Chinese faiths ": "includes Buddhists, Taoists, and other "
Chinese traditional religion Latin America 66,000 0.01% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by 6 Continental Areas,1995 "; "Chinese folk religionists: Followers of traditional Chinese religions (local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoism, universism, divination, some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion Latin America 68,000 0.01% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by 6 Continental Areas,1996 "; "Chinese folk religionists: Followers of traditional Chinese religions (local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoism, universism, divination, some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion Latin America 73,000 - - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "Geography of Religions " (Geography Department of Morehead State University); web page: "Geography of Taoism " (viewed 1 July 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.] Table: "Geography of Taoism ". "The figures of distribution listed below are for all traditional Chinese religionists, including local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoists, divination, as well as some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion Latin America 184,000 0.04% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 " [Listed in table as 'Chinese folk religionists': Followers of traditional Chinese religion (local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoism, universism, divination, some Buddhist elements).]
Chinese traditional religion Malaysia - 20.00% - - 1979 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: OPERATION WORLD, 1979); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Total population: 12,400,000. Chinese religions 20%, Hindus 9%, Free thinkers 17%, Animists 8%,
Chinese traditional religion Malaysia - 18.00% - - 1994 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: February, 1994 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) "Chinese religion 18%. "
Chinese traditional religion Malaysia 2,955,000 15.00% - - 1994 *LINK* Web site: "Council for World Mission "; web page: "Gereja Presbyterian Malaysia (GPM) " (viewed 31 May 1999). "Population (1994 United Nations estimate): 19.7 million... Main religions: Islam (50%), Buddhism (15%), Taoism (Chinese folk-religions) (15%), Hinduism (7%), Christianity (7%)... "
Chinese traditional religion Malaysia 2,360,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Chinese traditional religion Nauru - 8.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Ethnologue Database " (viewed circa Dec. 1998) "Religion: Christian 83%, Chinese traditional religion 8%, secular 8%, Baha'i 1% "
Chinese traditional religion North America - 0.10% - - 1900 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check "; web page: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions " (viewed 25 Feb. 1999), written by Justin D. Long. Table: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions, 1900-2025 "; "North America, defined by the U.N. to include Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, St. Pierre & Miquelon & U.S. "; listed in table as: "Chinese folk-religionists "
Chinese traditional religion North America - 0.10% - - 1925 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check "; web page: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions " (viewed 25 Feb. 1999), written by Justin D. Long. Table: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions, 1900-2025 "; "North America, defined by the U.N. to include Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, St. Pierre & Miquelon & U.S. "; listed in table as: "Chinese folk-religionists "
Chinese traditional religion North America - 0.10% - - 1950 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check "; web page: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions " (viewed 25 Feb. 1999), written by Justin D. Long. Table: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions, 1900-2025 "; "North America, defined by the U.N. to include Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, St. Pierre & Miquelon & U.S. "; listed in table as: "Chinese folk-religionists "
Chinese traditional religion North America - 0.00% - - 1975 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check "; web page: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions " (viewed 25 Feb. 1999), written by Justin D. Long. Table: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions, 1900-2025 "; "North America, defined by the U.N. to include Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, St. Pierre & Miquelon & U.S. "; listed in table as: "Chinese folk-religionists "
Chinese traditional religion North America 98,000 0.03% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by 6 Continental Areas,1995 "; "Chinese folk religionists: Followers of traditional Chinese religions (local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoism, universism, divination, some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion North America 100,000 0.03% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by 6 Continental Areas,1996 "; "Chinese folk religionists: Followers of traditional Chinese religions (local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoism, universism, divination, some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion North America 122,000 - - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "Geography of Religions " (Geography Department of Morehead State University); web page: "Geography of Taoism " (viewed 1 July 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.] Table: "Geography of Taoism ". "The figures of distribution listed below are for all traditional Chinese religionists, including local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoists, divination, as well as some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion North America 839,000 0.28% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 " [Listed in table as 'Chinese folk religionists': Followers of traditional Chinese religion (local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoism, universism, divination, some Buddhist elements).]
Chinese traditional religion North America 850,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check "; web page: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions " (viewed 25 Feb. 1999), written by Justin D. Long circa 1998. "Smaller religious blocs have a higher growth rate: 800,000 Bahais (2.46%), 156,000 Spiritists (1.81%), 850,000 Chinese folk-religionists (1.11%), 740,000 Asian New Religions (2.2%), and 520,000 Sikhs (2.66%). "
Chinese traditional religion North America - 0.30% - - 2000 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check "; web page: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions " (viewed 25 Feb. 1999), written by Justin D. Long. Table: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions, 1900-2025 "; "North America, defined by the U.N. to include Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, St. Pierre & Miquelon & U.S. "; listed in table as: "Chinese folk-religionists "; [Year 2000 projection made circa 1997]
Chinese traditional religion North America - 0.30% - - 2025 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check "; web page: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions " (viewed 25 Feb. 1999), written by Justin D. Long. Table: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions, 1900-2025 "; "North America, defined by the U.N. to include Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, St. Pierre & Miquelon & U.S. "; listed in table as: "Chinese folk-religionists "; [Year 2025 projection made circa 1997]
Chinese traditional religion Oceania 17,000 0.06% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by 6 Continental Areas,1995 "; "Chinese folk religionists: Followers of traditional Chinese religions (local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoism, universism, divination, some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion Oceania 17,000 0.06% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by 6 Continental Areas,1996 "; "Chinese folk religionists: Followers of traditional Chinese religions (local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoism, universism, divination, some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion Oceania 21,000 - - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "Geography of Religions " (Geography Department of Morehead State University); web page: "Geography of Taoism " (viewed 1 July 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.] Table: "Geography of Taoism ". "The figures of distribution listed below are for all traditional Chinese religionists, including local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoists, divination, as well as some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion Oceania 61,000 0.21% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 " [Listed in table as 'Chinese folk religionists': Followers of traditional Chinese religion (local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoism, universism, divination, some Buddhist elements).]
Chinese traditional religion Panama 30,000 - - - 1983 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: 7/16/83 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) "RELIGION: Traditional Chinese... An estimated 30,000 live in Panama alone! "
Chinese traditional religion Taiwan - - - - 1987 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: International Intercessors, May, 1987); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) "The predominant religion is a combination of Buddhism and Taoism. "
Chinese traditional religion Taiwan 10,410,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Chinese traditional religion Taiwan 20,180,792 93.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Total population: 21,699,776. Religions: Mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist 93%, Christian 4.5%, other 2.5%.
Chinese traditional religion Taiwan - 90.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 734. "...the Chinese population, which is 90% folk religion, or Buddhist. "
Chinese traditional religion Taiwan - 70.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; Listed in table as "Chinese faiths ": "includes Buddhists, Taoists, and other "
Chinese traditional religion Taiwan - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998); pg. 161. "Although Taiwan has separate Buddhist, Daoist and Confucian temples, the common person blends the practice of all three with a measure of superstition and ancestor worship. To further confuse matters, peasant devotees refer to this religious blending by the umbrella term Buddhism, even as they regularly visit local folk-religion temples to worship heroes and deities unknown to Buddhism. Indeed, there is little concern for strict dogmatism in folk religion. "
Chinese traditional religion Thailand - 1.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; Listed in table as "Chinese faiths ": "includes Buddhists, Taoists, and others. " [basically the Chinese minority living in Thailand]
Chinese traditional religion USA 70,000 0.10% - - 1900 1996 Britannica Book of the Year Table: Non-Christian Religious Adherents in the United States [Listed in table as "Chinese folk religion "]
Chinese traditional religion USA 90,000 0.00% - - 1970 1996 Britannica Book of the Year Table: Non-Christian Religious Adherents in the United States [Listed in table as "Chinese folk religion "]
Chinese traditional religion USA 80,000 0.00% - - 1990 1996 Britannica Book of the Year Table: Non-Christian Religious Adherents in the United States [Listed in table as "Chinese folk religion "]
Chinese traditional religion USA 76,000 0.00% - - 1995 1996 Britannica Book of the Year Table: Non-Christian Religious Adherents in the United States [Listed in table as "Chinese folk religion "]
Chinese traditional religion USA 90,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (viewed circa Nov. 1998); "last updated October 1998 " Table: "'Other Than Christian' Organizations "; "Some of the following data were estimated from North American figures: " [Listed in table as "Chinese folk religion "]
Chinese traditional religion USA 70,000 0.00% - - 2000 1996 Britannica Book of the Year Table: Non-Christian Religious Adherents in the United States. Year 2000 projection done in 1995. [Listed in table as "Chinese folk religion "]
Chinese traditional religion world - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 4). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), Chapter author: Marjorie Topley; pg. 464. "The stronghold of Chinese religion today is undoubtedly overseas Chinese society. Confucianism is still strong in Taiwan. Singapore and Hong Kong have a multitude of temples and cults. But their practices and ideas occur against a background of social and political institutions which is ver different from traditional China and have also been subject to change. The religion of overseas Chinese is traditional certainly, but it does not have quite the same relevance to society as it once did in the homeland. "
Chinese traditional religion world 140,956,000 - - - 1993 *LINK* web site: "Wholesome Words: Worldwide Missions " by Stephen Ross, "First Edition, 1998 "; [original sources: The World Factbook 1997 (CIA, 1998)] Table: "Major religions of the world (1993 est.) " [ "A system of beliefs that includes Confucianism and Taoism. "]
Chinese traditional religion world 225,136,992 3.94% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by 6 Continental Areas,1995 "; "Chinese folk religionists: Followers of traditional Chinese religions (local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoism, universism, divination, some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion world 220,971,008 3.81% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by 6 Continental Areas,1996 "; "Chinese folk religionists: Followers of traditional Chinese religions (local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoism, universism, divination, some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion world 187,107,008 - - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "Geography of Religions " (Geography Department of Morehead State University); web page: "Geography of Taoism " (viewed 1 July 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.] Table: "Geography of Taoism ". "The figures of distribution listed below are for all traditional Chinese religionists, including local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoists, divination, as well as some Buddhist elements. "
Chinese traditional religion world 379,161,984 6.39% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 " [Listed in table as 'Chinese folk religionists': Followers of traditional Chinese religion (local deities, ancestor veneration, Confucian ethics, Taoism, universism, divination, some Buddhist elements).]
Chinese traditional religion world 188,000,000 4.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (viewed circa Nov. 1998) [Original sources: J.W. Wright, Editor, The Universal Almanac, 1996, Andrews & McMeel, Kansas City. Greg H. Parsons, Executive Director, "U.S. Center for World Mission, " Pasadena, CA; quoted in Zondervan News Service, 1997-FEB-21.] Table: "Number of Adherents of World Religions " [Listed in table as "Chinese folk religion "]
Chingsan-kyo Korea, South - - - - 1900 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 415. "About 1900 a Confucian scholar named Kang Il-sun (1871-1910) claimed to be in touch with the spirits of the universe and to have magical powers. He founded a movement called Chingsan-kyo, from his pen name Chingsan (lit. 'Kettle Mountain'). It was largelyunited around his unusual personality, and after his death it split into a bewildering variety of sects. One centered around the mediumistic powers of Chingsan's concubine, and another was lead by his wife. Several of the splinger groups acclaimed him as Maitreya, the coming Buddha. "


Chingsan-kyo, continued

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